US DIRECTIVES

  • Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS1): The National Renewable Fuel Standard program (RFS1) was established under the Energy Policy Act of 2005, which amended the Clean Air Act by establishing the first national renewable fuel standard. The U.S. Congress gave the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the responsibility to coordinate with the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and stakeholders to design and implement this new program.
  • Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2): In May 2009, the EPA released proposed revisions to the National Renewable Fuel Standard program. These revisions addressed changes to the Renewable Fuel Standard program as required by EISA. The revised statutory requirements establish new specific volume standards for cellulosic bio fuel, biomass- based diesel, advanced bio fuel, and total renewable fuel that must be used in transportation fuel each year.
  • The volume standard under RFS2 was increased beginning in 2008 from 5.4 to 9.0 billion US gallons. The required volume continues to increase under RFS2, eventually reaching 36 billion US gallons.

Philippines Directives

SOURCE: https://www.senate.gov.ph/republic_acts/ra%209367.pdf

Mandatory Use of Biofuels – It is hereby mandated that all liquid fuels for motors and engine sold in the Philippines shall contain locally-sourced biofuels components as follows:

  • Within two years from the implementation of this Act, at least five percent (5%) bioethanol shall comprise the annual total volume of gasoline fuel actually sold and distributed by each and every oil company in the country, subject to the requirement that all bioethanol blended gasoline shall contain a minimum of five percent (5%) bioethanol fuel by volume: Provided that the ethanol blend conforms to PNS.
  • Within four years from the implementation of this Act, the NBB created under this Act is empowered to determine the feasibility and thereafter recommend to DOE to mandate a minimum of ten percent (10%) blend of bioethanol by volume into all gasoline fuel distributed and sold by each and every oil company in the country.
  • Within three months from the implementation of this Act, a minimum of one percent (1%) biodiesel by volume shall be blended into all diesel engine fuels sold in the country: Provided that the biodiesel blend conforms to PNS for biodiesel.

EU Directives

  • The EU has in place two directives that promote the use of sustainable biofuels, the RED and the Fuel Quality Directive (FQD), which should have helped the industry further.
  • The Renewable Directive is a EU directive which mandates levels of renewable energy use within the EU. It requires EU member states to produce a pre agreed proportion of energy consumption from renewable sources such that the EU as a whole shall obtain at least 20% of total energy consumption from renewable by 2020.
  • Under the Directive 2003/30/EC on the promotion of the use of biofuels or other renewable fuels for transport, EU established the goal of reaching a 5.75% share of renewable energy in the transport sector by 2010.
  • Under the Renewable Directive (2009/28/EC) on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources this share rises to a minimum 10% in every Member State in 2020.

India Directives

  • In India, petroleum with an ethanol blend has been developed and used in nine states and four territories: Andhra Pradesh, Daman, Diu, Goa, Dadra, Nagar Haveli, Gujarat, Chandigarh, Haryana, Pondicherry, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh.
  • In India, petroleum with an ethanol blend has been developed and used in nine states and four territories: Andhra Pradesh, Daman, Diu, Goa, Dadra, Nagar Haveli, Gujarat, Chandigarh, Haryana, Pondicherry, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh.
  • The plan also involves the installation of more transesterification plants that will position India to meet 20 per cent of its diesel needs through biodiesel.

Dubai Directives

Dubai, in the year 2011, across the Middle East region became the first country to set up a plant that yields bio diesel from vegetable oils. Dubai government in collaboration with Neutral Fuels and Mc Donald UAE began producing bio diesel with a vista of producing 100% bio diesel from vegetable oils.
Road and Transport Authority of Dubai in 2012 also united in the initiative by introducing 10 buses on road that run on low emission biofuels blend. According to an article in Forbes (Middle East), a business news and financial information portal, this has cut down the level of Carbon dioxide by 34% in the air and has also reduced the fuel cost by 7%.They are known as Green Buses.

The Dubai Supreme Council has formulated the Dubai Integrated Energy Strategy 2030 in which it aims for reducing the energy demand by 30%. They plan to achieve their goals by 2030. Dubai is heading towards the path of Green and Clean Dubai.

South America Directives

  • The government of Brazil hopes to build on the success of the Proalcool ethanol program by expanding the production of biodiesel which must contain 2% biodiesel by 2008, and 5% by 2013.
  • Colombia mandates the use of 10% ethanol in all gasoline sold in cities with populations exceeding 500,000. In Venezuela, the state oil company is supporting the construction of 15 sugar cane distilleries over the next five years, as the government introduces a E10 (10% ethanol) blending mandate.

Malaysia Directives

At present, Pusat Tenaga Malaysia Energy Centre forecasted that for the next 25 years the country energy requirements would be tripled from its present consumption levels and expand at a 5.2% annual rate.

  • Objective 1: Biofuel for Transport. Diesel for land and sea transport will be a blend of 5% processed palm oil and 95% petroleum diesel. This B5 would be made available throughout the country.
  • Objective 2: Biofuel for Industry. Supply B5 diesel to the industrial sector, to be used as fuel in industrial boilers, construction machinery, and diesel-powered generators.
  • Objective 3: Biofuel Technologies. Promote research, development, and commercialization of biofuel technologies.
  • Objective 4: Biofuel for Export. Encourage and facilitate the establishment of plants for producing biofuels for export.
  • Objective 5: Biofuel for a Cleaner Environment. Enhance the quality of the ambient air, reduce the use of fossil fuels, and minimize emissions of greenhouse gases (mainly carbon dioxide), carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and particulates through the increased use of biofuels.

In 2007, the Malaysian government approved a total of 92 biodiesel projects, 57 which were installed in Peninsular Malaysia and 35 located in East Malaysia, with a combined annual production capacity of 10.4 million tons or 11.7 billion liters. An additional seven plants with production capacities of 615,000 tons were constructed during that year. As of September 2008, there were 14 functional biodiesel plants, but only eight were in operation while the other four had suspended operations due to incessant price increases of biodiesel feedstock. From January to September 2008, the estimated total production capacity was 130,000 tons of biodiesel.